When we hold others responsible, we expect something from, and in order to expect something from others, we must trust and believe in them. We have to believe that they are capable of doing what we expect.
New experimental research by Kouchaki & Smith (2014), published in Psychological Science in January, shows that people are more likely to act ethically and to overcome temptation in the morning than later in the day. The authors refer to it as the morning morality effect.
Purzycki (2013) has compared two cultures with different religions (American Christians and Buddhist-animist Tyvans). The author wanted to examine cross-cultural variations in the representations of their gods, and how these relate to (religious) prosociality.
The impact of the neurotransmitter serotonin on the brain functioning is extensive, and the treatment of a number of psychological disorders involves serotonin in some way or another.